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Overview

Vomiting blood i.e. hematemesis is a serious condition in which blood is vomited through the mouth. Blood may be bright red, deep black, or dark brown in color.

Vomiting blood does not refer to the trace amounts of blood that may occur in the spit after tooth cleaning, a nosebleed, or a gum injury, but to huge volumes of blood.

While crimson vomit may come from ingested blood, such as from a nosebleed or a strong coughing fit, vomiting blood indicates something more serious that requires urgent medical treatment. Bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract caused by peptic ulcers or ruptured blood vessels is the most common reason for vomiting blood.

Dark blood indicates that the bleeding happened gradually. The blood has been in touch with stomach acid for a long time, causing it to discolor to a dark color. On the other hand, a substantial amount of red blood signifies a large and rapid flow of blood.

Coffee ground emesis occurs when vomit contains coagulated blood. If you have black vomit, it means you are bleeding inside. Due to the appearance of partly digested blood, it is also referred to as coffee ground emesis. It is caused by bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. Stomach hemorrhage is the most common cause of dark-colored vomit or blood sign.

Blood in the vomit may be caused by a variety of illnesses, and the severity of the problem varies from person to person. Irritation and infection, such as the stomach inflammation known as gastritis, which is prevalent in children, are the most common reasons for vomiting blood. Bleeding ulcers, inflammation, cancer, burst blood vessels or esophageal rips, and gastrointestinal parasites are all possible causes of vomiting blood.

Depending on the cause of the bleeding, the frequency with which blood is vomited and the volume of blood vomited varies greatly. After vomiting, those who are suffering from acute bleeding may see a huge quantity of blood. Blood loss may persist if the problem is not addressed, resulting in symptoms such as fainting or trouble breathing.

Causes

There is bleeding somewhere in the food pipe if you vomit blood. Some causes of hematemesis are:

Esophageal varices: A varice is swelling and expansion of the blood vessels in the stomach lining. Cirrhosis of the liver is a condition that may lead to a variety of problems. Cirrhosis is a condition in which the diseased tissue of the liver inhibits blood flow. As a result, the vein that transports blood from the intestines to the liver is subjected to increased pressure. As a consequence of the increased pressure, the stomach is pushed backward, causing the veins in the gullet to widen. The swellings are exceedingly delicate and may bleed profusely down the gullet if not addressed swiftly.

Ulcer or gastritis: If you vomit blood and simultaneously have a scorching or gnawing feeling in your stomach, the most likely causes are a stomach ulcer or severe gastric inflammation i.e. stomach lining inflammation (gastritis). Bleeding is possible if the ulcer or inflammation touches an artery.

Duodenal ulcer: An ulcer might bleed profusely at times. Infection with the (bacteria) Helicobacter pylori is the most common cause of duodenal ulcers, just as it is with stomach ulcers.

GERD: It is a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the food pipe and causes discomfort. It may progress to the point where the acid irritates and bleeds the esophageal lining leading to puking blood.

Swallowed blood: It is possible to swallow blood at times, such as after a strong nosebleed. It may lead to hematemesis.

Other health problems may cause a person to vomit blood, including the following:

·         Tears, irritation, or tissue loss in the stomach lining

·         Expansion of veins in the food pipe

·         Gut tumors

·         Lesions of the stomach

·         Radiation damage to the upper gut

·         Poison ingesting

·         Pregnancy, as a result of morning sickness and frequent vomiting

When to see a doctor

Blood in the vomit is a medical issue that demands prompt response. If you are vomiting blood, get medical attention immediately.

If you vomit blood and have any of the following signs or symptoms of substantial blood loss or shock, it is time to see your doctor.

·         Stomach ache

·         Dizziness

·         Lightheadedness

·         Foggy vision

·         Fainting

·         Confusion

·         Nausea

·         Cold and pallid skin

·         Low urine output