Type 2 Diabetes – Conditions

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Overview

Type 2 diabetes is defined by a failure in the body’s management and use of sugar (glucose) as an energy source. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that affects the body’s ability to manage and utilize glucose as an energy source. As a consequence of this long-term (chronic) disease, there are unusually high levels of sugar in the bloodstream. Blood sugar levels that are excessively high may lead to problems with the circulatory, immunological and neurological systems in the long run.

As a result of insufficient insulin production and poor insulin response in your cells, the amount of sugar that can be absorbed by your cells decreases.

The phrase “adult-onset diabetes” was formerly used to refer to type 2, but both types 1 and 2 diabetes may develop throughout childhood and maturity. Although type 2 diabetes is more common in older adults, the increase in the number of obese youngsters has led in an increase in type 2 diabetes cases in children and adolescents.

Managing type 2 diabetes may be challenging in the absence of medication. However, losing weight, eating a balanced diet, and exercising regularly may all help. If diet and exercise alone are insufficient to manage your blood sugar levels, you may need diabetic medications or insulin therapy.

Causes

Type 2 Diabetes mechanism involves beta cell dysfunction.

Insulin is a hormone that your pancreas produces. It helps convert glucose, a type of sugar, from the food that you eat into energy in your cells. Although individuals with type 2 diabetes generate insulin, their cells do not utilize it to the degree that they should.

To begin with, your pancreas generates more insulin in an effort to get glucose into your cells. It eventually becomes unable to keep up, and glucose builds up in the bloodstream.

It is characterized by the body’s resistance to insulin. Your body’s ability to use the hormone is no longer as effective as it previously was. As a consequence, your pancreas will have to work harder in order to produce more insulin.

Your pancreatic cells may be damaged as a result of this. It’s possible that your pancreas may eventually stop generating insulin completely. As a result, the cells in your body are starving for energy.

A hereditary tendency to type 2 diabetes may exist in certain individuals.

There is a genetic tendency to obesity, which raises the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes later in life. There’s also a chance that an environmental trigger is involved.

Symptoms

Since the condition is defined by the body’s inability to properly utilize insulin to transport glucose into cells. Your body is forced to depend on the stored energy in your tissues, muscles, and organs. This sets off a chain reaction that may result in a wide range of signs and symptoms.

Type 2 diabetes may manifest themselves gradually. At first, the symptoms may seem to be minor and easily dismissed. The following are examples of early symptoms:

·persistent hunger

·a lack of energy

·tiredness

·weight loss

·excessive thirst

·frequent urination

·itchy skin

·hazy eyesight

As the condition progresses, the symptoms become more severe and potentially fatal.

If your blood glucose levels have been high for an extended period of time, the following symptoms may occur:

·yeast infections

·slow-healing wounds or sores

·black patches on the skin

·Neuropathy

·experience of numbness in the limbs

If you encounter two or more of these symptoms, you should immediately see your physician. Diabetes may become fatal if left untreated for an extended period of time.

Diagnosis

Your doctor may do a blood test to determine if you have type 2 diabetes. In most cases, you will be retested in two days to confirm the diagnosis. A single test may be sufficient if your blood glucose level is extremely high or you have a lot of symptoms.

HbA1c: this diagnostic test measures an average of your blood glucose levels over the previous two or three months.

Fasting blood glucose: It monitors your blood sugar levels when you are fasting. You won’t be able to eat or drink anything other than water for the eight hours leading up to the test.

OGTT: Glucose tolerance testing is done orally. This test measures your blood glucose levels before and two hours after you consume something sweet to see how your body responds to sugar intake.

Treatment

Type 2 diabetes is managed in a variety of methods, including the following:

·Healthy diet

·Exercise on a consistent basis

·Weight loss

·Utilizing diabetes medication or insulin therapy

These methods will help you in maintaining a more normal blood sugar level, thus avoiding or preventing complications.

In some cases, modest lifestyle changes are sufficient to maintain control of type 2 diabetes. If these are not sufficient in severe cases, there are a variety of medications that may be beneficial. Several of these medications include the following:

·Metformins are a class of medicines with a short half-life that stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin. It is the preferred treatment for the majority of people with type 2 diabetes.

·Sulfonylureas are oral medications that stimulate the production of insulin

·Thiazolidinediones can lower blood glucose levels and improve your body’s response to insulin

·GLP-1 receptor antagonists prolong digestion while improving blood glucose levels

·Inhibitors of SGLT2 aid the kidneys in reabsorbing glucose into the circulation and excrete it in the urine

Each of these medicines has the potential of side effects. If you have diabetes, finding the right medicine or combination of drugs to manage it may take some time.

If you have high blood pressure or cholesterol, you may require medication to treat these problems as well.

Insulin treatment may be required if your body generates inadequate insulin. It is possible that you will just need a long-acting injection at night, or that you will need insulin injections multiple times during the day. It is crucial to find out what other medicines you may use to help you control your diabetes.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor immediately if you notice any diabetes sign or symptom.