Periodic fever syndromes (Recurrent Fever)

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Overview

A fever is the body’s natural defense mechanism against infection. The immune system is the component of the body that is in charge of keeping the person healthy. When this system is triggered, the body’s temperature rapidly increases.

A recurrent fever is one that arises more than once in a certain time span. This is often referred to as episodic fever. If you or your child has a fever on a monthly basis you should seek medical assistance.

Newborns and children under the age of five are the most prevalent victims of this kind of fever. The temperature climbs for a few days before decreasing consistently over an extended period of time. In between fevers, the child seems to be healthy and functioning normally.

Periodic fever syndromes are a category of disorders characterized by recurring fever. It refers to a collection of illnesses in which a child has recurring bouts of fever throughout time, frequently with the same symptoms each time. Each fever episode lasts about the same amount of time as the one before it. These disorders are caused by hereditary abnormalities that are very uncommon. Recurrent fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis is the most frequent kind of periodic fever syndrome.

Symptoms that may occur when a person suffers from recurrent fever include rash, joint discomfort, edema, sores and abdominal pain. Other symptoms may sometimes appear, but they are often consistent from episode to episode for each individual.

Although there is no cure for periodic fever syndrome, medication may typically help avoid the disorder’s symptoms from manifesting. Treatments for different disorders are tailored to each individual’s needs. Anti-inflammatory medicines may be prescribed to alleviate pain.

Causes

Periodic fever syndromes are a category of rare, generally inherited illnesses in which a family member or close relative has had comparable occurrences in the past. The source of the fever episodes is unclear, however, it might be an infection or an autoimmune illness like systemic lupus erythematosus. Periodic fever syndromes are characterized by bouts of uncontrolled inflammation, which is why they are also known as autoinflammatory disorders.

It may be caused by a number of different factors. The following are some probable causes:

·         Virus

·         Bacterial infection

·         Vaccination

Bacterial infection is the most common cause of recurrent fever. Infections that may cause intermittent fever include urinary tract infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and dental abscesses.

The body temperature may also be higher than normal at certain times of the day or after exercise. These are often just a few degrees higher than the usual body temperature and diminish quickly if you do not strain yourself.On the other hand, a persistent fever is not caused by a viral or bacterial illness. Recurring fevers seem to develop randomly and in a regular sequence. It is often listed as the major symptom of a number of different recurrent fever syndromes. In certain circumstances, these illnesses are caused by a genetic defect.

Recurrent fever at irregular intervals may be caused by a variety of illnesses affecting several organ systems, or by a number of unrelated infections in the same organ system in the same individual (e.g., urinary tract). In some cases, but not all, recurrent fever is a single illness in which fever and other signs and symptoms increase and diminish over the course of the disease.

Hereditary autoinflammatory diseases or EBV infections may also cause recurrent fever. A thorough case history, physical examination, and specific laboratory tests may be beneficial in confirming the existence of these diseases or EBV infections.

The medical conditions that are associated with Periodic fever syndrome include the following:

·         FMF i.e. familial Mediterranean fever

·         Hyper immunoglobulin syndrome

·         Autoinflammatory syndrome

When to see a doctor

A little fever, in the majority of situations, is no the reason for concern. If you experience this symptom, it means your body is reacting to an infection properly. The majority of fevers subside in a matter of days. In any case, if you or your kid gets a temperature higher than 104°F or if the fever lasts more than a few days, you should seek medical attention. If your kid has a fever that comes and goes for a lengthy period of time, call the doctor right away. Diagnosing and treating these illnesses is a specialty of MMA’s pediatric rheumatologists. They may recommend medication to help your kid feel better and return to normal activities. When inflammation is out of control, therapy may be beneficial in preventing negative consequences.