Hyperlipidemia – Conditions

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Overview

Hyperlipidemia, often known as high lipid, is a medical disease characterised by abnormally high amounts of fat in the blood. Hyperlipidemia (ICD 10: E78.5) raises the risk of heart disease, stroke, and death, despite the fact that the majority of individuals have no symptoms.

Cholesterol is a waxy fat molecule with a protective coating produced by the liver. It is required for proper cell membrane function, as well as for brain function, hormone synthesis, and vitamin storage.

The two kinds of proteins that carry cholesterol into cells are LDL, commonly known as bad cholesterol, and HDL, also known as good cholesterol. LDL cholesterol has a negative impact on one’s health in general. HDL, on the other hand, has the potential to reverse LDL cholesterol’s negative effects.

HDL is beneficial to one’s health because it transports excess cholesterol to the liver, where it may be removed. Bile is then used by the liver to remove cholesterol from the body. LDL cholesterol that stays in circulation is harmful to one’s health because it enables excess cholesterol to build up in the bloodstream.

Triglycerides are a class of fat that may be found in the bloodstream of an individual. They have a significant link to heart disease, despite the fact that they are not a kind of cholesterol. As a result, physicians closely monitor the triglyceride levels of people with hyperlipidemia.

If a person has one or more of the following, they may develop hyperlipidemia:

·         LDL levels are too high

·         Triglyceride levels are high

·         HDL levels are low

Causes

Hyperlipidemia can be resulted due to a number of factors, including the ones listed below:

Genetics: primary hypercholesterolemia is the condition which is inherited. This is a trait that parents pass on to their offspring.

Secondary hyperlipidemia is a disorder that may be brought on by a poor diet, among other things.

It is possible to pass on a mutated gene from one parent to the next, causing the LDL receptor to be absent or malfunction. As a consequence, the body is unable to remove LDL from circulation, resulting in dangerously high levels of LDL in the blood.

Other risk factors include:

·         sedentary lifestyle

·         obesity

·         diabetes

·         metabolic syndrome

·         hypothyroidism

·         pregnancy

Symptoms

It is estimated that the overwhelming majority of individuals suffering with hyperlipidemia show no signs or symptoms of the disease. In contrast, familial or hereditary hyperlipidemia may manifest itself as yellow, fatty growths around the eyes and joints, as well as in the arteries.

The majority of the time, HLD is found via a regular blood test or after a cardiovascular event such as a stroke or heart attack.

Atherosclerosis is a disease that develops as a result of the accumulation of fat in the arteries over a period of time. Inflammatory plaques form on the inner walls of arteries and blood vessels, causing the passageways to become narrowed. Atherosclerosis is the medical term for this condition. Because of this, it is possible that irregular blood flow through the arteries occurs, increasing the likelihood of heart disease and stroke by a considerable margin.

Diagnosis

Patients with hyperlipidemia are subjected to a lipid profile blood test, which is used by physicians to determine whether or not they have the condition.

Fasting is required for this test. This means that, depending on the circumstances, a person should abstain from eating or drinking anything for 9–12 hours before the examination.

A lipid panel is a blood test that measures the amount of cholesterol in the bloodstream. Total cholesterol is a measure of the amount of cholesterol present in the bloodstream.

Treatment

Regular exercise and a nutritious diet, as well as other healthy lifestyle changes, are the first line of defence against elevated cholesterol levels. However, if you have made these significant lifestyle changes and your cholesterol readings continue to be high, your doctor may advise you to take medication. Consuming a well-balanced diet and engaging in regular physical activity may all help to lower a person’s cholesterol levels, as can taking medication to lower them.

The medication or drug combination that you select is influenced by a variety of factors, including your particular risk factors, your age, your health, and the possibility of drug side effects.

But because inheritance is in part influenced by cholesterol levels, a healthy lifestyle may not be sufficient to reduce cholesterol. In certain instances, medication may be necessary.

Physicians often prescribe statins to decrease cholesterol. These medications help decrease the amount of liver cholesterol.

Bile acid-binding resins are also prescribed. Cholesterol is used by the liver in the synthesis of bile acids, which are essential for food digestion. “Cholesterol-lowering drugs” act by binding to bile acids and reducing cholesterol levels in an indirect way. This enables your liver to use more cholesterol in the production of bile acids, lowering the quantity of cholesterol in your circulation.

In addition to medicine, physical exercise and treatment are also suggested by the doctors to control the lipid levels.

When to see a doctor

You should contact your doctor if you notice any of the symptoms of lipemia and to determine if a cholesterol test is required. Risk factors for heart disease are usually assessed twice in children and young adults under the age of nine: first between the ages of nine and eleven, and then again between the ages of seventeen and nineteen. Adults who do not have any risk factors for heart disease should get their cholesterol levels checked every five years.

If your test results are not within acceptable ranges, your doctor may recommend that you take more frequent measurements. If you have a family history of high cholesterol or heart disease, or if you have additional risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, or high blood pressure, your doctor may suggest more frequent testing.

It is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity and a healthy fat diet may aid in the maintenance of good cholesterol balance in the bloodstream and the prevention of health problems associated with high cholesterol levels in the bloodstream. 


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