Hyperactive disorder (ADD/ADHD) – Condition

We Primary Care - Best Primary Care Knowledge Site

Overview

Hyperactive disorder (ADD/ADHD) is a neurological condition that impairs your capacity to focus,  sit still, and  regulate behavior. It mostly affects children and young people and may continue to progress. ADHD is a pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity which continues over time and interferes with development.

Inattention is described as straying off task, lacking persistence, having difficulty sustaining focus, and disorganization.

Hyperactivity is characterized by excessive fidgeting, tapping, and speaking. It may happen when a person seems to be constantly moving about, even when it is not appropriate. Adults who exercise for extended periods of time may experience severe restlessness or tiredness.

Impulsivity is characterized by an individual’s need for immediate pleasure or inability to postpone satisfaction, as well as a desire for immediate reward or an inability to wait for gratification. An impulsive person may be intrusive in social situations, often interrupting others, or make important decisions without considering the long-term consequences of their actions.

In children and teenagers, ADHD is the most diagnosed mental illness. According to the statistics, it is more common in boys than in girls. It is typically seen in an early stage of the school year when the child is seen struggling to pay attention. 

There is no cure for ADHD. It is not a preventable disorder. Early identification as well as thorough treatment and education plans may help children and adults with ADHD.

Causes

Scientists are looking into the causes and risk factors for hyperactivity disorder in order to improve treatment and decrease the likelihood of a person developing the disease. Despite the fact that the precise cause(s) and risk factors for ADHD are unclear, recent research has shown that heredity plays a significant role in the disorder. A connection between genetics and hyperactivity disorder has been shown in recent studies.

Additional causes and risk factors include:

·         Traumatic brain injuries

·         Exposure to environmental toxins (e.g., lead)

·         Drinking or smoking in pregnancy

·         Premature delivery of a kid

·         Lower than the average birth weight

Symptoms

ADHD symptoms may occur between the ages of 3 and 6 and can continue throughout adolescence and adulthood. In calm and well-behaved young people, the symptoms of ADHD may be misinterpreted as emotional or disciplinary problems, or a delay in diagnosis can be entirely missed.

The symptoms of ADHD may become more obvious as a person gets older. The most frequent symptom of hyperactivity disorder in young children is “hyper-activity-impulsivity.” When a child progresses through elementary school, his difficulties in paying attention may become more obvious, leading to academic problems. Hyper activity tends to diminish in adolescence and may more frequently show itself as restlessness or fidgeting, but carelessness and impulsiveness may remain. Interpersonal relationships and antisocial behavior among ADHD adolescents are frequent issues. Carelessness, restlessness, and impulsiveness are typical adult issues.

Men are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than women, and boy’s and girl’s impulsive behaviors may be very different. Girls are more inattentive, while boys are more hyperactive.

Diagnosis

ADHD, particularly in children and teenagers, may be difficult to diagnose. Because it is difficult to detect, it’s impossible to diagnose in one test. After close monitoring of the child’s behavior and responses, along with discussion of the symptoms with the kid, their parents, and teachers ,doctors are able to diagnose ADHD in children and adolescents.

Psychiatrists follow the standards of the “American Psychiatric Association,” which are based on the amount of symptoms an individual has as well as how long they have been present. They will rule out any other possible causes of the symptoms, such as health issues or everyday difficulties, as part of the assessment.

An ADHD test based on a battery assessment is performed to confirm the diagnosis. A kid may be placed through a battery of tests to evaluate their neurological and psychological condition in order to validate a diagnosis of ADHD or any learning difficulties.

Treatment

ADHD may be treated in a number of ways. A multimodal approach for managing symptoms is the most successful treatment option for many children. This involves the employment of a variety of distinct therapeutic methods in combination with medicines. Many of the symptoms of ADHD may be eased with the assistance of medication in addition to therapy. Close collaboration between doctors, therapists, teachers, and parents is an imperative part of therapy.

Stimulants are the most often prescribed medications for the treatment of hyperactivity disorder. They may be useful in the control of impulsive and hyperactive behavior, as well as the development of attention span in children and adolescents. They have an effect on brain chemicals such as dopamine, which may aggravate impulsive behavior.

Many psychological treatments have been proven to help patients and their families cope with symptoms while also improving their overall quality of life.

Behavioral therapy is a kind of psychotherapy that focuses on assisting the individual in changing their behavior. Peer support may take the form of practical aid, such as assisting with task organization or assignment completion, or emotional assistance, such as assisting with the resolution of emotionally distressing situations. Additionally, behavioral therapy teaches how to control one’s own behavior.

Parents, instructors, and members of the family, may consider giving positive or negative feedback on particular actions and contributing to the creation of clear rules, task listing and other structured behavioral management routines. Therapeutics may teach children social skills such as waiting, sharing toys, requesting help and responding to teasing, among other things. Learning how to read and understand other people’s facial expressions and voice tones and how to appropriately respond in social environments are examples of social skills training.

When to see a doctor

If you suspect that your kid is suffering from ADHD symptoms, you should consult with your doctor or family physician. It is conceivable that your doctor may send you to a specialist, such as a pediatrician, psychologist, psychiatrist, or podiatrist; nevertheless, it is critical that you first have a medical checkup to rule out any other potential reasons for your child’s issues.


visit our other interesting blogs at our primary care website:
Fungal Infection
Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease
Hand Numbness (Numbness in Hands)
Headache
Heart Attack
Heartburn
Heart Rhythm Problem /Arrhythmia
Heel pain
Hemoglobin Count
Hemorrhoids
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Hernia
Hiatal Hernia
High Potassium (Hyperkalemia)
High Red Blood Cell Count
High uric acid level
High White Blood Cell Count
HIV/AIDS
Hoarseness
Hyperactive disorder (ADD/ADHD)
Hyperlipidemia
Hyperthyroidism / Overactive Thyroid
Hypothyroidism / Underactive Thyroid
Hypoxemia