Hepatitis B – Condition

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Overview

Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver that affects people of all ages. This condition is caused by the virus, but can be successfully avoided with a vaccine. In some cases, hepatitis B is mild and only lasts a few weeks. Treatment is usually not required in the case of these acute conditions. However, it has the potential to progress to a chronic state. As a result, organ scarring, liver failure, and cancer can occur, all of which are potentially life-threatening. The symptoms of Hepatitis B appear quickly while the symptoms of the chronic type of hepatitis develop slowly.

It is possible to contract the virus by coming into contact with the blood, open sores, or bodily fluids of an individual who has the infection.

Hepatitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can manifest itself in a variety of ways. Viruses are the cause of diseases such as hepatitis A and C, among others.

Causes

The causative agent of this infection is the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that is passed from one person to the next through bodily fluids like blood and sperm. This illness is not transferred by sneezing or coughing.

Infection with HBV can be spread in a variety of ways:

Sexual contact with an infected person without protection can result in Hepatitis B transmission. The virus can infect you if you make contact with a person’s saliva, blood, sperm, or vaginal secretions.

Infected blood-contaminated needles and syringes are a common way for HBV to be transmitted. The transmission of the infection occurs through the sharing of IV medication equipment.

Accidental needle sticking is a common occurrence in the medical field. Health care professionals, who come into contact with blood, should be concerned about the infection.

The transmission of infection can occur from mother to newborn. Pregnant women who are infected with the virus can pass the virus on to their children during the process of childbirth. However, in almost all cases, the newborn can be immunized against infection to keep it from spreading. If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, discuss with your doctor the possibility of being tested for hepatitis B.

Symptoms

Hepatitis B symptoms and signs can range from mild to severe depending on the severity of the infection. Although they can appear as soon as two weeks after infection, they usually appear one to four months after you have been infected with the virus. A small percentage of people, particularly children, may exhibit no signs or symptoms at all.

Symptoms and signs of hepatitis B include the following:

·         Discomfort in the abdomen

·         Fever

·         Dark urine

·         Joint pain

·         Appetite loss

·         Nausea and vomiting

·         Fatigue/weakness and exhaustion

·         Jaundice

Symptoms of long-term (chronic) hepatitis B infection do not always manifest themselves. If they do, the symptoms may be similar to those of a short-term infection (acute infection).

Diagnosis

Your doctor will conduct a thorough physical examination if they suspect you have the infection. Your blood will be drawn to determine whether or not your liver is inflamed. If you have symptoms consistent with this condition and have elevated liver enzyme levels, you will be tested for the following:

Hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAg): Antigens of the hepatitis B virus are proteins found on the virus. Antibodies are proteins produced by your immune cells. They manifest in your blood between one and ten weeks after exposure. If you heal, they will fade away within 4 to 6 months. If they persist for more than six months, you have a chronic condition.

Antibody directed against the hepatitis B virus surface (anti-HBs): These develop in the absence of HBsAg. They are the ones who will ensure that you remain hepatitis B-free for the remainder of your life.

If your disease progresses to a chronic stage, your doctor may perform a liver biopsy to obtain a tissue sample. This alerts them to the gravity of your situation. Additionally, you may receive a liver ultrasound to determine the extent of liver damage.

Within 30 to 60 days of infection, the virus can be detected. About 70% of persons with hepatitis B develop symptoms, which usually show 90 days after the virus is first exposed to the body.

Treatment

Your physician will determine whether you have acute or chronic hepatitis B and will treat you accordingly.

In case you have an acute form of the illness, you will not require medical attention. Your physician may advise you to get adequate rest, drink plenty of fluids, and consume a nutritious diet in order to aid your body in fighting the illness.

If it is chronic hepatitis B, the doctor prescribes pharmaceutical treatment. People who have active liver disease are frequently prescribed medication to treat their condition. Seven drugs for the treatment of hepatitis B are approved, two of which are injectable interferons while five are antivirals available as tablets.

 These medications must be taken on a regular basis in order to be effective. They contribute to the reduction of the virus’s ability to spread throughout the system. Because of this, edema and liver damage are less likely to occur. In order to detect early signs of liver damage and cancer, you will need to be tested on a regular basis. You will require a visit with your healthcare provider once or twice a year.

There is no cure for chronic hepatitis B. People who have been infected with the virus can expect to lead normal lives if the virus is dealt with in a professional manner. Eating a nutritious diet and refraining from using tobacco products as well as alcoholic beverages are essential to effectively managing the infection.

When to See a Doctor

If you have been exposed to hepatitis B, you should consult a physician immediately. You may be able to reduce your risk of infection if you receive preventive treatment within 24 hours of being exposed to the virus.

Consult your physician if you suspect you are experiencing hepatitis B symptoms or signs.


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