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Overview

Eosinophilia is characterized by an increase in eosinophils (type of WBCs) in the blood. It is caused by a variety of factors. WBCs play a critical role in the defense system as it has an anti-infection response that assists in the body’s protection. Eosinophils are a kind of white blood cell. They participate in both the body’s normal physiological functions and the host’s defense. Additionally, they participate in the control of allergic responses and parasite resistance.When the body is sick, eosinophils help the body fight the disease. The most common causes of peripheral eosinophilia include parasite infection, an allergic reaction, or malignant development.

Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood; however, the precise threshold varies by laboratory. Eosinophilia is classified into three severity levels: mild, moderate, and severe.Eosinophilia symptoms include itching, rash, asthma, diarrhea, and runny nose.

The quantity of WBCs/eosinophils in the body is determined by an absolute eosinophil count. EOS absolute is a kind of blood test. Your eosinophils become more active when you have certain allergies, diseases, infections, or other medical issues. On the other hand, low eosinophils may indicate a bone marrow problem.

Treatment is based on the illness’s underlying cause. Treatment for high eosinophils may include stopping certain medications (in the event of adverse drug reactions), avoiding specific meals (in the case of esophagitis), or using an antibiotic or anti-inflammatory medication.

Causes

Eosinophils have a dual function in the immune system. Elimination of undesirable pathogens and inflammation. They combat chemicals associated with a parasite infection that your immune system has identified as requiring elimination. Eosinophils have a role in the formation of inflammation. Inflammation may sometimes become more severe than necessary, resulting in unpleasant symptoms or even tissue damage. Eosinophils in this case leads to the development of asthma and allergies such as hay fever. Chronic inflammation may be caused by a variety of immune system problems, including autoimmune diseases.

It is possible to develop eosinophilia if an abnormally large number of eosinophils are attracted to a specific area of your body or if your bone marrow produces an abnormally large number of eosinophils in your blood. It is possible to develop eosinophilia due to a number of different causes, the most frequent of which being parasite infections and drug allergies. Excessive eosinophilia causes organ damage, which culminates in the development of hypereosinophilic syndrome. This illness is caused by an unknown source or is associated with certain malignancies, such as bone marrow or lymph node cancer.

Eosinophilia causes include:

·         Allergic reactions

·         Skin infections

·         Toxins accumulation

·         Endocrine disorders

·         Fungal or parasitic infections

·         Tumors

A disease that causes abnormally high eosinophil count include

·         Acute myelogenous leukemia

·         Asthma

·         Cancer

·         Crohn’s disease (an inflammatory condition)

·         Hodgkin’s lymphoma

·         Immunodeficiency

·         Colitis

These diseases are able to cause blood and tissue eosinophilia.

Eosinophilia myalgia syndrome is an inflammatory disorder that affects the muscles, skin, and lungs. This syndrome is also responsible for causing abnormally high numbers of eosinophils in the blood as it is accompanied by inflammation. Severe muscle pain, muscle spasm, fatigue, joint pain, swelling and itching are the symptoms accompanied by eosinophilia.

Drug reactions also cause eosinophilia. Certain medicines may induce eosinophilia, which may present itself without obvious signs or symptoms. Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medicines are the most often given medications that cause eosinophilia. Eosinophilia and systemic symptoms are two indications of a severe drug reaction.

Another cause of eosinophilia is atopy. Atopy is a kind of allergic reaction. Acne, asthma, and seasonal allergies are all types of atopy. It is the cause of mild to moderate eosinophilia, which is more common in children and adolescents. Food allergies, on the other hand, may also result in an increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood.

Cancer is also linked with eosinophilia. There has been an increase in eosinophil count, a sign of inflammation, in a variety of malignancies, most notably blood cancers.

When to see a doctor

Eosinophilia is often discovered because of blood tests performed by a doctor in order to aid in the diagnosis of a disease from which you are already experiencing symptoms. Consult with your doctor to determine the significance of these findings. Eosinophilia in the blood or tissues, in conjunction with the findings of other tests, may assist in identifying the cause of your disease. Getting an appropriate diagnosis and being able to get treatment for any relevant diseases or disorders will almost certainly result in a reduction in eosinophilia. Eosinophilia is a serious condition that necessitates immediate medical attention, if not treated promptly then it may lead to fatal consequences.


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