Cold Sores / Herpes Labialis – Conditions

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Overview

A cold sore is a group of tiny, painful blisters caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). They’re also called fever blisters or herpes simplex labialis.

Up to 90% of people around the world have at least one form of HSV. The symptoms are usually the most severe the first time you get cold sores. A first-time cold sore can make a child seriously ill. After the first outbreak, your body should make antibodies, and you may never have another infection. But many people get cold sores that come back.

Causes

Cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus. There are two types of the herpes simplex virus. The herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1) usually causes cold sores, and the herpes simplex type 2 virus (HSV-2) usually causes genital herpes. The actual sores are similar in appearance for both forms of the virus. It’s also possible for HSV-1 to cause sores on the genitals and for HSV-2 to cause sores on the mouth.

Visible cold sores are contagious, but they may be spread even when they can’t be seen. You can get the herpes simplex virus by coming in contact with people with the herpes simplex virus. This may happen through kissing, sharing cosmetics, or sharing food. Oral sex may spread both cold sores and genital herpes.

Symptoms

You may notice a tingling or burning sensation on your lips or face several days before a cold sore develops. This is the best time to start treatment. Once the sore forms, you’ll see a raised, red blister full of fluid. It will usually be painful and tender to the touch. There may be more than one sore present.

The cold sore will remain for up to two weeks and will be contagious until it crusts over. Your first cold sore may not appear for up to 20 days after you contract the herpes simplex virus. You may also experience one or more of the following symptoms during an outbreak:

  • Fever
  • Muscle aches
  • Swollen lymph nodes

Diagnosis 

Your doctor can usually diagnose cold sores just by looking at them. To confirm the diagnosis, your doctor might take a sample from the blister for testing in a laboratory.

Treatment

There’s no cure for cold sores. Once you have the virus, it stays in your body. The sores themselves usually heal on their own in 1 or 2 weeks. Antiviral medications can speed healing, especially if you take them at the first sign of an outbreak. Some home remedies can help you feel better while you heal:

  • Cold, damp compresses
  • Pain medicines like acetaminophen and ibuprofen
  • Cream painkillers with benzocaine or lidocaine
  • Treatments with alcohol to dry out the blisters
  • Lip balms and creams to keep moisture in

When to See a Doctor?

You should call your doctor immediately if you develop any eye symptoms during a cold sore outbreak. The herpes simplex virus can lead to permanent vision loss when not treated promptly.


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